Foundation of lathe CNC Machining
- source:FANYA CNC Machining
08mm, local after compressing, be 0.
So, =D2 of filling value of X Xiang Dao, one D1, 0.
1. computation the value inputs this knife to compensate the X position of date accordingly. If amount of penetration of a cutting tool of the following treatment is large, answer to subtract afore-mentioned values experience lets a knife measure reintroduce. Fore-and-aft to knife measure: A will compensate the Z of date to be worth to clear to compensation accordingly; B turns chuck to fixed position with the hand piece to direction of point of a knife; C left hand puts a paper in point of a knife and fixed position piece between end panel, pull ceaselessly move. The right hand moves an operation with the hand first fast hind locate point of a knife slow an end panel is adjacent, pull till newspaper do not move till, the Z on the optical screen when setting this is Z1 to indication value, criterion =Z1-0 of filling value of Z Xiang Dao.
05. The Z position that inputs computational value this knife to amend order accordingly again can. If machine penetration of a cutting tool later the amount is large, answer to subtract afore-mentioned values experience lets the reintroduce after the knife is measured. ② is opposite to using the numerical control lathe of positional detector is transverse to knife measure: Pace of A, B, C, d4 and afore-mentioned numerical control lathe that use absolutely position detector are identical; E " locking " mechanical part, the X that uses operation general optical screen with the hand shows the value shakes with (D1+0.
10) value is same; F removes afore-mentioned " mechanical locking " , move an operation with the hand, rise tool carrier transverse position of rest; G is worth the X inside block of the G50 in the program the X that subtracts right now optical screen shows, this is cost of cutting tool compensation, the X position that inputs it this knife to amend order accordingly can. If be machined later amount of penetration of a cutting tool is larger, answer to subtract afore-mentioned values experience lets the reintroduce after the knife is measured. Fore-and-aft to knife measure: Pace of A, B, c3 and before narrate the numerical control lathe that uses absolutely position detector identical; D " locking " mechanical part, the Z that moves an operation to attend optical screen with the hand shows the value shakes + 0.
05; E removes afore-mentioned " mechanical locking " , move an operation to rise tool carrier fore-and-aft position of rest with the hand; F is worth the Z inside block of the G50 in the program the Z that subtracts show on optical screen right now, it is cost of cutting tool compensation, the Z position that inputs it this knife to amend order accordingly can. If be machined later Z is measured to penetration of a cutting tool bigger, answer to subtract afore-mentioned values experience lets a knife measure reintroduce. (3) note ① if program origin is located in be apart from place of Z of end panel of fixed position piece, so aforementioned Z should is worth plus Z to knife filling value, two kinds of types are such. ② if because point of a knife blocked ungual reason not to arrive end panel of fixed position piece, z faces a knife to usable chuck end, at this moment knife filling value should undertake conversion. The 2 methods that use both sides of centre of turning circle of workpiece of turning of a knife pursue 1 it is the flange sketch that uses on a kind of long-range sensor, want turning A, B, C, D, E5 face. Outside dividing A side, the requirement of each dimension precision, position precision and exterior surface roughness compares other tall. Semifinished product is forging. To assure precision, divide thick car, fine vehicle to finish. Use installation 55. Of equilateral lozenge razor blade outside round knife, by the direction of graphic representation installation is on knife stage. Graph method of turning of sketch map of 1 flange turning: If press groovy method, face of car A, B uses a knife, face of car C, D, E uses another knife, so thick car and fine vehicle should use 4 knives, and make with treatment of this kind of method the on size error between face of B, E does not exceed tolerancepublic errand very hard (0. 02ram) limits. Use the method of both sides of centre of turning circle of workpiece of turning of a knife, solved afore-mentioned problems. This method is thick car, fine vehicle uses a knife respectively, two knives differ except circular arc of point of a knife outside, other is identical, take cutter track line repeatedly identical. The turning course of lathe tool of essence of life introduces only below. Make point of a knife fast arrive at M first ' dot, let workpiece turning (M03) while, make point of a knife arrives at cutting again initial drop M, face of ordinal cutting C, D, E, till F dot. Let workpiece stop then turn (M05) , let point of a knife arrive at N at the same time ' dot, let workpiece changeover (M04. ) while, let point of a knife arrive at another side cutting initial drop N, face of ordinal cutting B and A face, reach G point till point of a knife. So far, cutting already was finished entirely, retreat a knife, stop to turn and end a program. Use this method, machined more than 10000 successfully, the effect is very good, can offer the work with similar turning to consult. The 3 CNC Turning methods that do not allow corner to be in a burr have some of steel to pledge workpiece asks corner is right angle, and cannot have burr, use treatment of numerical control lathe, can accomplish this a little bit. Enlarge of lathe tool point of a knife looks to show circular arc more model, see a picture 2. K is dot of fictitious point of a knife, e, F is point respectively circular arc and horizontal the point of tangency with perpendicular. If press a plan 3 with the graph course of 4 arrangement cutting, can be in external diameter and point of end panel turning to give burr respectively. If press a plan 5 arrangement, the burr on the workpiece after the car is over and graph 4 basic and same. Visible, 3 kinds of groovy turning methods all give above burr. Graph 2 point of a knife magnify the graph pursues 3 first end panel of the car after car external diameter the common characteristic of these 3 kinds of turning: Cutting blade has paragraph of time to leave workpiece contour line, this gives out burr offerred an opportunity. By the graph the program of this part is 5 turning N4 G01 X100 F0. 3: N5 Z-50: Light sees a program, it seems that point of a knife is all the time on workpiece contour line, but the position that what dictate in the program is fictitious point of a knife. From the graph 5 can see, in actual cutting, the F dot on edge arrives in the A on workpiece when B dot, E dot nods a shift to A in the C on workpiece, cutting blade left workpiece contour line. Graph 4 first internal diameter of the car after car end panel pursues 5 end panel, external diameter is down external diameter of the car after end panel of Che Yixian car exemple, see the process of burr. The graph is shown 6 times is cutting of towards the left of point of a knife, the E dot on its approachs the state when A is nodded. At this moment the extruding that the metal of A dot upside is down by point, the part is squeezed already the side outside the end panel that the car crosses, and become burr. The degree with the size of burr and sharp point is concerned. Give burr to do not let workpiece, the cutting line that if the graph is shown 7 times,introduced, its program is changed accordingly for N4G01 X96. 8 F0. 3; N44G03 X100 Z-1. 6 K-1. 6: N5 Z-50: Such, two side won't have department of the horn after cutting is over burr. Although the program compares a figure 5 much a paragraph, but total distance of shift of point of a knife is short instead, namely cutting time compares a figure 5 little. Among this, the effect that does not have burr to make sure workpiece corner is in turning is good, the bit of exact form should be picked before turning. Graph 6 squeeze a burr location drawing if the turning that 7 corner do not have burr uses process designing of machine of automatic process designing, although stipulated end panel is in up, the successive cutting of towards the left of external diameter place, it also is made up only (be defeated) give a picture the program of 5 courses. Want not to vacate burr, make what the person is revise to the program of output only: N4 paragraph medium X instruction is worth instead 96.
8, join N44 paragraph. Want constructive of 7 without burr cutting, say strictly, herein cannot use R of point of a knife to compensate function, cannot use C42 statement namely, can use following process designing: N3G42 X45 Z0: N4 G01 X100F0. 5: N5 Z-50: The plan still is pressed when be being carried out 5 go and won't press a plan 7 go. If the program of around of this one block used G42, and process designing member do not think G42 of herein take out again, calculate other again the statement cost of a lot of place, can write following programs: N3G42 X45 Z0: N4G01 X99. 998 F0. 3: N44 G03 X100 Z-0. 001 K-0. 001: N5 Z-50: Did not look to join radius to be 1gm only this little value, circular arc that gives outline to was not affected to the car, the plan can be pressed when carrying out the line of 7 goes, give corner to handle the work that does not have burr with respect to turning. The 4 methods that prevent cutting sunken corner to be in cutting tool bear to rise suddenly show the fine vehicle treatment of workpiece 8 times like the graph, before the dotted line in the graph and solid line are treatment respectively, the outline after. It is big batch treatment, requirement surface cannot have the moulage that receive a knife. Graph cutting of two 8 knives achieves sketch map to choose installation at the same time the knife of end panel external diameter of razor blade of coating of 80 ° equilateral lozenge. If be on lathe of numerical control of short-hilted broadsword stage turning, if first car I ministry, when be close to C to nod finally, can appear very wide cut bits, bear of bit left side edge rises suddenly, adverse to cutting tool and machine tool. If this one knife is in,will end when osculatory Ⅱ ministry, so when ministry of Ⅱ of car of the 2nd knife have to such cars: Cut C point first downward, go at least right again 1.
5mm ability retreats a knife, the bear of such cutting won't rise suddenly, but a moulage that receive a knife appears on outer diameter, this does not allow. Convert first car Ⅱ ministry again the situation of car I ministry is same also. Can use ministry of I, Ⅱ to make a round trip much car is solved a few times, but such cutting efficiency were reduced a lot of, small lot treatment is OK still, big batch treatment is improper. The external diameter knife that also can use bit of 35 ° equilateral lozenge comes turning, the bear that makes the first knife last does not increase too much, but the intensity of razor blade of 35 ° lozenge is poor, the result is bad also. Use lathe of numerical control of double knife stage to go up to be solved with undermentioned method finally. Install the knife of end panel external diameter of razor blade of coating of 80 ° equilateral lozenge identically with two, an outfit is in on on knife stage, an outfit is on stage leaving a sword. When treatment, let these two knives at the same time turning is nodded to C, also retreat a knife at the same time of course. Pass an analysis knowable, when two knives are close to C to nod at the same time, cutting bear won't have bigger addition, actual cutting comes down cut bits to also did not broaden apparently, instead when cutting is nodded to C cut bits narrower and narrower. The rest of the problem is how to let go up, at the same time cutting goes to below two knives C dot. A kind of method is to use speed to let go up, next knives reach point of E, D respectively, reoccupy synchronism instruction begins labour to enter at the same time, on, of next knives every turn feed statement is same value. Another kind of method is to go up dot of knife preexistence F awaits, next knives begin cutting of towards the left from D dot, arrive to cutting when be apart from C to nod 32mm, reoccupy synchronism instruction lets go up the knife begins labour to enter. The 3rd kind of method is to let go up first, next knives reach F dot, D point respectively, going up again block of a time-out is added in the program of knife stage (G04) , the work that suspends block and program of station leaving a sword in this receives block in, add into same synchronous statement respectively. If suspend time be being chosen suitably through mathematical calculation, on, next knives also can arrive at C to nod at the same time. No matter use which kinds of method, its efficiency and effect are same. Nevertheless, if go up, when cutting leaving a sword should use different feed, can use the 3rd kind of afore-mentioned methods only. Do not fear at the same time cutting goes to two knives C dot can bump together, in fact, go up, the flank that next knives differ twice of cutting workpiece centre of turning circle respectively. 5 shorten what the method of technological process of batch workpiece turning needs big batch turning one kind is sealed, semifinished product is forging, if the section plane appearance after its car is over pursues 10 inside dotted line place is shown. Original technological process is vehicle of 3 thick cars, 1 half fine, 2 fine vehicle, in all 6 working procedure. Use semi-automatic lathe of C7620 hydraulic pressure and lathe of C7220 profile modeling, ovality of the external diameter after treatment sometimes short of blueprint 0.
The requirement of 12mm. Through analyse and experimenting repeatedly, shortened technological process. Finish with 3 working procedure only all thick, finish machining, its machined precision to also achieve blueprint requirement, and used lathe of a numerical control only. Graph the first working procedure sees 9 the 1st process graph 9, block small internal diameter, with C7620 semi-automatic lathe, face of turning A, B and C, D pours wine cup. The 2nd working procedure sees a picture 10, with lathe of numerical control of stage of a double knife, block the external diameter that already thick car crosses. Upper tool post installs two 80. The knife of end panel external diameter of equilateral lozenge razor blade, t1 grows the bit of 16 by the side of outfit, with the thick car that pours wine cup at face of F, E and K, the graph grows the bit of 12 by the side of outfit of 10 the 2nd working procedure, use at the fine vehicle of this 3 place. Next tool carrier install two each to make blade holder W1 and W2, install on respective head 55. The knife of end panel external diameter of equilateral lozenge razor blade, the appearance side the model of these two knives and razor blade is the same as. The radius of circular arc of point of a knife that is the bit that T3 uses only is 1.
6mm, the radius of circular arc of point of a knife of the bit that T4 uses is 1.
2mm. The thick car that T3, T4 makes part of face of H, J and L, M, N respectively and fine vehicle, after writing corresponding CNC Machining program, can undertake turning. The 3rd working procedure, use C7620 semi-automatic lathe, block G of small internal diameter with bedspring clamping apparatus, use fixed position of end panel F, b of A of fine vehicle external diameter, end panel and quoin C. Graph 10 the 2nd working procedure produces practice application through large quantities of quantities, used afore-mentioned methods to shorten technological process half, it is successful. The measure that 6 balances handling time improves work efficiency is using lathe of double tool carrier treatment is same kind of workpiece, if use different technology, efficiency can differ a lot of. The core here is cycle time namely the balance problem of handling time. Among this, it is before, hind balance of the handling time between two working procedure, 2 it is every working procedure go up, balance of the handling time between next tool carrier. If step is logical, work efficiency can rise a lot of. If pursue 11 with the graph 12 are shown is turning of core of a kind of bearing when before, hind two working procedure. Before in working procedure, outfit of knife of T1, T2 is in upper tool post, outfit of T3, T4 is on next tool carrier; Hind working procedure, outfit of knife of T1, T2, T3 is on upper tool post, outfit of knife of T4, T5, T6 is on next tool carrier. Graph the working procedure before 11 bearing core presses groovy method to discharge craft so, working procedure does not have the T3 knife in the graph before, after that process chart is much mediumer knife of a T7 (actual be before knife of working procedure T3 moves the) that come over, namely share of thick car of big rib ③ is put after working procedure turning. The cycle time of the working procedure before in those days is 61s, the cycle time of working procedure is 89s after. This workpiece is big batch treatment, before ask when working procedure very loose, hind floor-to-floor time is very close, the influence machines efficiency. The first measure is hind the working procedure before working procedure moves to go to the knife, if pursue,12 are shown. The working procedure before before uses 3 knives, it is stage of a knife holds two knives namely, another knife stage makes up a knife, no matter how be arranged, on, the handling time of next tool carrier cannot be balanced. Go up now, after next tool carrier install two knives each, course of cutting of again reasonable arrangement, make go up, next tool carrier end cutting at the same time almost, retreat a knife at the same time. The cycle time of the working procedure before such making falls to 72s, at this moment hind the cycle time of working procedure is 78s. 1.
Ministry of cutting of small oily channel and essence of small external diameter cut a ministry 2.
Raceway essence cuts a ministry 3.
Small end panel is thick cut a ministry 4.
Small external diameter and raceway are thick cut a ministry 5.
Ministry of lard channel cutting 6.
Ministry of big rib cutting and end panel essence cut a figure the working procedure after 12 bearing core so far, of foreword of go to work go up, next tool carrier cut work time is a balance, and before, hind the handling time of working procedure still lopsided. Observation is informed, hind of working procedure go up, the time that next tool carrier machine, an end is early, an end differs late very big. Then, after working procedure in 6 knives, 3 outfit are in upper tool post, 3 outfit fall in the premise of next tool carrier, made plan of 4 kinds of cutting, via computation and actual cutting, chose now this plan: Make go up, next tool carrier end basically at the same time cutting and retreat a knife, cycle time also is 72s. So far, not only before, hind working procedure is respective on, next tool carrier handling time achieve a balance, and before, hind the cycle time of working procedure also achieved a balance. A also can say, this is optimal program. If before, hind working procedure forms a product line, that end the cycle time of this a gleam of by original 89s, fall for present 72s, shortened the handling time of 19 ％ , make work efficiency rises apparently. The cutting of problem constant linear velocity that the attention answers when cutting of linear velocity of 7 use constant also calls fixed linear velocity cutting, its implication is to be in turning blame is cylindrical inside, when external diameter, rotate speed of lathe main shaft can change continuously, in order to maintain the cutting linear velocity of position of real time cutting changeless (constant) . The numerical control lathe that above blocks in has this function commonly. Use this function not only can improve work efficiency, still can improve the quality that machines the surface, namely the end panel that cutting gives or cone the consistency of exterior surface roughness that wait is good. Here to in an attempt to the 13 problems that note to when exemple specification uses this function, answer. Graph graph of cutting of 13 constant linear velocity pursues 13 in cutting tool (pointed) orbit dotted line expresses fast feed, solid line expresses working feed, f dot and its size are increased for the specification below. It is to should notice to top rotate speed should be restricted commonly before using this function.
If cutting tool wants to advance to leave workpiece centre of turning circle very close, must restrict top rotate speed before constant linear velocity dictates so, can appear otherwise " flying car " . By us the manual of the machine tool reachs particular installation case in this exemple, decide top rotate speed does not exceed 3000r ／ Min. According to workpiece material and the case that use cutting tool, cutting linear velocity decides to choose 200m ／ Knin. Following program is the effective machine program that graph A shows a part. 0123; T0100 of ～ of Z of ～ of N1 G50 X: N2 G97G00Xa Za S1000 M04; N3 Xb Zb S1061 T0101 M08; N4 G50 S3000: N5 G96G01Xc ZcF0. 2$200; N6 G97G00Zd$746; N7Xe N8 G96G01 Xg$200; N9 G97 COO Xh ZhS1500 M09; N10 G28 U0 W0 M05; N11 M02: Enroll speed limit of 3000r ／ Min here N4 paragraph inside. This " G50S3000; " the instruction also can arrive ahead of schedule in front any positions, should be in only in this exemple N5 paragraph before OK. Such result is: In the process of cutting of constant linear velocity that makes end panel, f dot and his upside cent are cutting of $200 constant linear velocity, from F the dot begins rotate speed to increase no longer, turn into constant angular velocity namely (cutting of 3000r ／ Min) , till G dot. If do not have N4 paragraph rotate speed qualifies a statement, so rotate speed continues to increase under F dot, when be being nodded to G theoretic should achieve 6366r ／ Min, this is breakneck. 2 it is to should notice this function cannot be used in speed commonly (inside G00) block. In other words, begin to reach in G96 block under, before G97 block, cannot appear commonly COO block. In this exemple, if mix the G97 in N6 the G96 take out in N8, although cone and end panel still can make cutting of constant linear velocity, but carrying out N7 paragraph arrive at the main shaft in E point process to be able to be quickened suddenly quickly from D dot namely, rise 909r ／ Min urgently from 530r ／ Min. If cutting tool already arrived,main shaft has not rise 909r ／ Min, so cutting tool can await in E dot, rise end panel of resumptive cutting of 909r ／ Min till main shaft. The 3 main shaft rotate speed that are initial drop of G96 of best cipher out, in the COO block that reachs share of volume of rotate speed change next in front. In this exemple, the rotate speed that can calculate so that B, E nods is 1061r ／ Min and 909r ／ Min respectively. Visible, the rotate speed variation before B is nodded is 1061r ／ Min. Because initial drop arrives,A is apart from between the dot longer, arrange the variation of 1000r ／ Rain before A is nodded, give only variation of 61r ／ Min stays between A, B. N2 paragraph if medium this S value wants more accurate, can leave according to span of afore-mentioned distances and A, B than coming cipher out. Additional, can calculate so that C point point is 530r ／ Min, such C are 379r/min to the rotate speed variation between E, it is than making an appointment with as a result of the length of CD and DE 4: 3, so we arrange CD to ask ascendant 216r ／ Min, 163r ／ Min rises between DE, can decrease to eliminate the latency time of cutting tool even so, improve treatment efficiency then. The circle of the spare parts of CNC Turning skill that 8 circles pour wine cup pours horn to have 3 sort commonly model, graph 14 it is a the commonnest kind. The dotted line in the graph is face of semifinished product outline. Specific part drawing can give out the numerical value of A, B and R dimension. When treatment, first selection 80. Knife of external diameter of end panel of equilateral lozenge razor blade, the R of radius of circular arc of point of a knife of bit but the basis machines circumstance make choice of. Here selects the delegate site of the T that it is a knife with the fictitious point of a knife with left razor blade. Graph 14 the commonnest circles pour horn to discuss turning plan now. Assume first car end panel, hind car external diameter. From A the dot begins, enter with labour be down cutting end panel. After cutting end panel, make cutting tool fast reach B point, cutting of interpolation of anticlockwise circular arc goes to reoccupy C dot, enter external diameter of cutting of towards the left with labour then. According to A, B, R the value begs B to nod the order that chooses coordinate at O relatively to be: First the coordinate that H of cipher out the centre of a circle nods, reoccupy R transfers through M dot but the coordinate that cipher out B nods. Basis already the coordinate that the H dot coordinate of cipher out can reach N is nodded, next the coordinate that C nods came out. This kind of advantage that machines a method is province time, grain eats to pull one knife up again after end panel need not be down cutting, 2 it is process designing simple: G03 of circular arc interpolation paragraph the I inside is 0 (can omit) , k is negative (R+r) value, need not make geometrical calculation. If change first end panel of the car after car external diameter, usable also and similar afore-mentioned method comes turning. If the graph is shown 15 times,the circle pours the 2nd kind of type of horn. Buccal A, B, R, A, β gives out to be worth in the graph, r of radius of circular arc of point of a knife by craft make choice of. To look clearly, of semifinished product outside outline was not drawn in the graph. Choose here first external diameter of the car after car end panel. From the A besides semifinished product the dot begins, after cutting end panel downward, make cutting tool fast reach B point. The distance L of B dot and end panel can be decided oneself. The skill of this plan depends on adding to be apart from end panel L to be apart from namely this transfers line. Cutting tool enters C by B labour, interpolation of again anticlockwise circular arc walks along D, be versed in again enter E, finally - external diameter of cutting of towards the left. The B in the graph, C, D, E is worth at the coordinate 0 o'clock relatively, can use 6 datum to beg, here no longer expatiatory. Graph the 3rd sort that the 2nd kind of 15 circles pour horny circle to pour wine cup, it is to ask round horn parts with addition of end panel, external diameter, if pursue,16 are shown. Graph if precision requirement is general,the 3rd kind of 16 circles pour wine cup, what razor blade of usable and average level shows a method to machine by Zun Tu. From the A of semifinished product external diameter the dot begins, cut end panel to arrive downward B. A very small amount takes between AB and 0C, like 0.
05mm or 0.
1mm. Cutting of reoccupy small feed arrives C, labour is entered pull D up, again cutting round horn arrives E, again external diameter of cutting of towards the left. If the precision demand of round horn is high, answer to increase the accuracy class of bit accordingly. If this kind of precision demand that the circle pours wine cup is not high, the method that can show by right plan institute is machined. The relative position that the skill here is pair of end panel and round horn makes a few craft amend, in order to achieve end panel need not turning two purpose. Specific cutting measure is: From the A besides semifinished product external diameter the dot begins, after cutting end panel downward, d of fast fall back on, again cutting circular arc arrives E, again external diameter of cutting of towards the left. Those who notice correction L choose. After wanting turning end panel only end panel is not helped when be being retreated quickly, l value should be obtained as far as possible a few smaller. This basically depends on the tigidity of the clearance of machine tool slideway and tool carrier, particular value can cut a decision through trying. CNC Milling CNC Machining