Introduction to CNC Machines and Their Costs(cnc turned parts Brian)
- source:FANYA CNC Machining
What is a CNC Machine?
CNC machines are controlled by coded instructions that drive motors and machining tools to shape raw material into custom parts. Older CNC machines were controlled by instructions encoded on punched tape, but most modern CNCs are computer controlled, receiving instructions from CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) software.
CNC machines can be thought of as robotic drilling and milling machines. Their tools apply horizontal and vertical forces to shave away material and create the desired shapes. Common tools used include end mills, drills, and lathe bits. The program precisely controls the location, speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and other parameters to cut the material.
CNC machines deliver extremely high accuracy and repeatability. A properly programmed CNC machine can repeatedly manufacture parts within tolerance levels of thousandths of an inch. This precision is what makes CNC technology so useful for producing parts that must conform to strict specifications.
Factors That Determine CNC Machine Costs
There are several important factors that affect the costs of CNC machines:
- Machine Size and Work Envelope - The physical dimensions and capacity of the machine significantly impact cost. Larger machines that can accommodate bigger parts are more expensive.
- Number of Axes - More axes of motion allow for more complex machining operations. 3-axis and 5-axis CNC machines are common. More axes means higher price tags.
- Precision and Accuracy Rating - Higher precision machines with tighter tolerances and better repeatability are more costly.
- Power and Torque - Machines with higher horsepower motors and greater torque can remove material faster. This improved machining capability comes at a price.
- Control System - More advanced control systems increase automation and functionality. Simple CNC machines may use G-code. Full CNC systems include CAD/CAM software.
- Material Construction - Machines made from higher quality materials and components have greater longevity and precision, increasing costs.
- Brand Reputation - Well-known CNC brands like Haas and Hurco that are known for performance and reliability often demand higher prices.
CNC Machine Types and Costs
There are several basic types of CNC machines used in manufacturing. Each has a range of costs depending on their size, capabilities, and options.
- CNC Mills - Mills use rotary cutting tools to mill out material. Common types include vertical machining centers (VMCs) and horizontal machining centers (HMCs). New CNC mills range from $50,000 to $500,000 or more.
- CNC Lathes - Lathes spin the workpiece while a cutting tool approaches it to cut material. CNC lathes range between $50,000 to $300,000+ depending on length, power, and features.
- CNC Routers - Routers use rotating bits like drills to cut out 2D and 3D shapes. Table sizes affect costs, from $10,000 for hobbyist models up to $50,000+.
- CNC Plasma Cutters - Plasma cutters use a plasma torch to cut through metal. CNC models allowing automatic cutting range from $15,000 to $60,000+.
- CNC Laser Cutters - CO2 laser cutters focus high-power lasers to cut and etch sheet materials. Smaller lasers start around $8,000, while industrial 5'x10' beds cost over $100,000.
Factors That Add To CNC Machine Costs
On top of the base price, there are many additional options, features, and accessories that can be added to increase capabilities and functionality. Some add-ons that commonly increase CNC machine costs include:
- Automated Pallet Changers - Allow automated loading/unloading of workpieces to run unattended. Adds $10,000-$50,000 typically.
- 4th & 5th Axis - Rotary axes for milling complex 3D contours. Each extra axis costs around $10,000-$20,000.
- CNC Probing - Probes help align parts and measure cut dimensions, but add $2,000-$5,000 per probe.
- Tool Changers - Allow automatic tool changing to reduce operator involvement, at about $5,000-$15,000.
- Coolant Systems - Coolant pumps and chiller systems maintain temperature and clear chips, adding $3,000-$6,000 or more.
- Safety Enclosures - Protect operator and machine. Could be $5,000 for a partial enclosure or over $20,000 for a full enclosure.
- Higher Power Spindles - For faster machining speeds, but a 15 HP upgrade could be $5,000-$10,000.
- Additional Software - For CAM programming, monitoring, etc. Could be $5,000-$20,000 depending on modules.
Buying New vs Used CNC Machines
New CNC machines with full warranties allow custom configuration and options, but come at premium prices from machine OEMs. Used CNC machines provide substantial cost savings of 40% or more versus new, but may have less capabilities, accessories, and limited warranty. Rental and leasing options are also worth considering, especially for short term needs.
When evaluating new vs used CNC machines, key factors to consider include:
- Usage Hours and Wear - Lower hourly usage results in less wear. Ask for log records.
- Age and Controller Generation - Newer machines have more advanced controllers and features.
- Precision Testing - Have a used machine inspected for accuracy deviations.
- tool condition- Assess overall condition of chucks, belts, bearing, ballscrews, etc. Upgrade costs may be required.
- Maintenance History - Evidence of comprehensive maintenance is ideal for older used CNCs.
- Available Options - Some add-ons may not have been purchased originally and require further investment.
While used CNC machines provide the allure of substantial savings, potential for additional upgrade and maintenance costs must be carefully weighed. New CNC machines mitigate long term risks.
Optimizing CNC Machine Costs
For manufacturers looking to optimize their CNC machine investment costs, considerations include:
- Purchase adequate capability but don't overspend on unneeded capacity
- Consider production requirements for part size, precision, speed, and materials
- Select a flexible, modular machine that allows upgrades as production evolves
- Leverage quantity discounts for multi-machine purchases
- Evaluate financing options to improve cash flow vs large capital purchases
- Maximize in-house handling to minimize outsourcing costs
By carefully matching machine capabilities to part production requirements and purchasing only the required functionality, manufacturers can invest in CNC equipment with an ideal cost structure for their needs.
CNC machines deliver game-changing automation, precision, repeatability, and productivity. However, purchasing CNC equipment represents a major business investment that must be carefully evaluated. While exact CNC machine costs depend on many specifications and options, buyers should thoroughly assess size requirements, precision needs, speed capabilities, automation features, brand reputation, new vs used pricing, and total ownership costs. With attention to these key factors, manufacturers can invest in CNC machines with the optimal combination of features and reasonable costs for their production needs and budget constraints. CNC Milling CNC Machining